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Nongovernmental organizations and models of development in India

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Kathryn Manzo


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This article draws on academic writings in international relations and development studies and on primary research conducted in India. Three particular nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) discussed in the article are the Pan-Himalayan Grassroots Foundation (PHGF), Development Alternatives (DA), and Lokayan. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the idea of a singular model of NGO development (sometimes called alternative or people-centered development), as well as the factors that account for existing similarities and differences among NGOs. The article shows that NGOs can share the same political ideals (such as empowerment of the poor) yet vary widely in how they theorize and operationalize development. It is important, therefore, to distinguish the unity exhibited in collective opposition to conventional development from the diversity of alternative philosophies and approaches. In conclusion, the article summarizes the main findings and draws broader lessons about ambiguity and contradiction from the Indian case studies.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Manzo K

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Environment and Development

Year: 2000

Volume: 9

Issue: 3

Pages: 284-313

Print publication date: 01/01/2000

ISSN (print): 1070-4965

ISSN (electronic): 1552-5465


DOI: 10.1177/107049650000900305


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