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The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Peter Baylis


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The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the commonest form of normovolaemic or dilutional hyponatraemia. The diagnosis of SIADH should be considered if the five cardinal criteria are fulfilled (hypotonic hyponatraemia, natriuresis, urine osmolality in excess of plasma osmolality, absence of oedema and volume depletion, normal renal and adrenal function). The clinical features are principally neuro-muscular and gastro-intestinal, the severity of which is related to both the absolute serum sodium concentration and its rate of fall, particularly if greater than 0.5mmol/1/h. The dilutional hyponatraemia of SIADH develops due to persistent detectable or elevated plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations in the presence of continued fluid intake. Osmoregulated inhibition of thirst failures to curb fluid intake. The major groups of causes of SIADH are: (i) neoplasia, (ii) neurological diseases, (iii) lung diseases and (iv) a wide variety of drugs. Inappropriate infusion of hypotonic fluids in the post-operative state remains a common cause. Four categories of osmoregulated AVP secretion have been described: (i) erratic AVP release, (ii) reset osmostat, (iii) persistent AVP release at low plasma osmolality and (iv) normal osmoregulated AVP secretion. For symptomatic patients with chronic SIADH, the mainstay of therapy remains fluid restriction. New antagonists to the antidiuretic action of AVP offer a new therapeutic approach. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Baylis PH

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology

Year: 2003

Volume: 35

Issue: 11

Pages: 1495-1499

ISSN (print): 1357-2725

ISSN (electronic): 1878-5875


DOI: 10.1016/S1357-2725(03)00139-0

PubMed id: 12824060