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A phase I and pharmacodynamic study of fludarabine, carboplatin, and topotecan in patients with relapsed, refractory, or high-risk acute leukemia

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Gareth Veal, Dr Michael Tilby

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Abstract

Purpose: A novel regimen designed to maximize anti-leukemia activity of carboplatin through inhibiting repair of platinum-DNA adducts was conducted in poor prognosis, acute leukemia patients. Experimental Design: Patients received fludarabine (10 to 15 mg/m2 × 5 days), carboplatin (area under the curve 10 to 12 by continuous infusion over 5 days), followed by escalated doses of topotecan infused over 72 hours (fludarabine, carboplatin, topotecan regimen). Twenty-eight patients had acute myelogenous leukemia (7 untreated secondary acute myelogenous leukemia, 11 in first relapse, and 10 in second relapse or refractory), 1 patient had refractory/relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 2 patients had untreated chronic myelogenous leukemia blast crisis. Six patients had failed an autologous stem cell transplant. Patients ranged from 19 to 76 (median 54) years. Measurement of platinum-DNA adducts were done in serial bone marrow specimens. Results: Fifteen of 31 patients achieved bone marrow aplasia. Clinical responses included 2 complete response, 4 complete response with persistent thrombocytopenia, and 2 partial response. Prolonged myelosuppression was observed with median time to blood neutrophils ≥200/μl of 28 (0 to 43) days and time to platelets ≥20,000/μl (untransfused) of 40 (24 to 120) days. Grade 3 or greater infections occurred in all of the patients, and there were 2 infection-related deaths. The nonhematologic toxicity profile was acceptable. Five patients subsequently received allografts without early transplant-related mortality. Maximum tolerated dose of fludarabine, carboplatin, topotecan regimen was fludarabine 15 mg/m2 × 5, carboplatin area under the curve 12, and topotecan 2.55 mg/m2 over 72 hours. An increase in bone marrow, platinum-DNA adduct formation between the end of carboplatin infusion and 48 hours after the infusion correlated with bone marrow response. Conclusions: Fludarabine, carboplatin, topotecan regimen is a promising treatment based on potential pharmacodynamic interactions, which merits additional study in poor prognosis, acute leukemia patients.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Cooper, B., Veal, G.J., Radivoyevitch, T., Tilby, M., Meyerson, H., Lazarus, H., Koc, O., Creger, R., Pearson, G., Nowell, G., Gosky, D., Ingalls, S., Hoppel, C., Gerson, S.

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Clinical Cancer Research

Year: 2004

Volume: 10

Issue: 20

Pages: 6830-6839

Print publication date: 15/10/2004

ISSN (print): 1078-0432

ISSN (electronic): 1557-3265

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0097

DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0097

PubMed id: 15501959


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