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Lookup NU author(s): Dr Judith Bulmer
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Background: Pregnancy-associated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum adherence to chondroitin sulfate A in the placental intervillous space is a major cause of low birthweight and maternal anaemia in areas of endemic P falciparum transmission. Adhesion-blocking antibodies that specifically recognise parasite-encoded variant surface antigens (VSA) are associated with resistance to pregnancy-associated malaria. We looked for a possible relation between VSA-specific antibody concentrations, placental infection, and protection from low birthweight and maternal anaemia. Methods: We used flow cytometry to measure VSA-specific IgG concentrations in plasma samples taken during child birth from 477 Kenyan women selected from a cohort of 910 women on the basis of HIV-1 status, gravidity, and placental histology. We measured VSA expressed by one placental P falciparum isolate and two isolates selected or not selected for chondroitin sulfate A adhesiveness in-vitro. Findings: Concentrations of plasma IgG specific for VSA, expressed by chondroitin sulfate A-adhering parasites (VSA in pregnancy-associated malaria or vsa-pam), increased with gravidity and were associated with placental histological findings. Women with chronic pregnancy-associated malaria and low or absent VSA-PAM-specific IgG had lower haemoglobin values (reduced by 17 g/L; 95% CI 8.1-25.2) and delivered smaller babies (birthweight reduced by 0.26 kg; 0.10-0.55) than did corresponding women with high VSA-PAM-specific IgG. No such relation was shown for concentrations of IgG with specificity for non-pregnancy-associated malaria VSA. Interpretation: VSA-PAM-specific IgG protects against low birthweight and maternal anaemia. Our data indicate an important mechanism of clinical protection against malaria and raise hope for the clinical effectiveness of a potential VSA-based vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria.
Author(s): Staalsoe T, Shulman CE, Bulmer JN, Kawuondo K, Marsh K, Hviid L
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
ISSN (print): 0140-6736
ISSN (electronic): 1474-547X
Publisher: Lancet Publishing Group
PubMed id: 14751701
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