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Triple Helix twins: Innovation and sustainability

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Henry Etzkowitz


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Debate over the Triple Helix model has focused on the question of whether there is a fourth helix. Various candidates have been suggested, such as labor, venture capital, the informal sector and civil society. However, introduction of a fourth helix might cause a triadic model to lose its creative dynamic. Nevertheless., an expanded model is required to incorporate a critical dimension. To resolve this paradox, we propose a Sustainability Triple Helix of university-public-government as a complement to the Innovation Triple Helix of university-industry-government, thereby introducing a missing element into the model, while retaining the dynamic properties of a tertius gaudens. © Beech Tree Publishing 2006.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Etzkowitz H, Zhou C

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Science and Public Policy

Year: 2006

Volume: 33

Issue: 1

Pages: 77-83

ISSN (print): 0302-3427

ISSN (electronic): 1471-5430

Publisher: Beech Tree Publishing


DOI: 10.3152/147154306781779154


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