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Soft neurological signs do not increase with age in euthymic bipolar subjects

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Utpal Goswami, Dr Aditya SharmaORCiD, Emeritus Professor Nicol Ferrier, Professor Allan Young, Dr Brian Moore


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Background: Soft neurological signs (SNS) are found to be in excess in bipolar disorder (BD). This paper explores changes in SNS with ageing to ascertain whether BD is associated with a progressive neurological decline or a relatively fixed, persistent deficit. Methods: 53 euthymic BD subjects and controls, aged 15-55 years, were for examined for the presence of SNS which were rated using a modified Kolakowska battery. Results: In controls, SNS scores increased slowly and significantly with age whereas in BD subjects high scores occurred throughout the age range and were not age dependent. This confirms and extends an earlier, smaller, study which is reanalysed. Limitations: The study design was cross-sectional whereas a longitudinal study would better reveal changes in soft signs with ageing. Conclusions: The studies suggest strongly that BD is accompanied by a significant neurobiological deficit which may progress only minimally with increasing age. © 2007.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Goswami U, Gulrajani C, Varma A, Sharma A, Ferrier IN, Young AH, Moore PB

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

Year: 2007

Volume: 103

Issue: 1-3

Pages: 99-103

ISSN (print): 0165-0327

ISSN (electronic): 1573-2517

Publisher: Elsevier BV


DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2007.01.009

PubMed id: 17367868


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