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Mutations in prokineticin 2 and prokineticin receptor 2 genes in human gonadotrophin-releasing hormone deficiency: Molecular genetics and clinical spectrum

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Richard Quinton, Professor Simon PearceORCiD


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Context: Mice deficient in prokineticin 2 (PROK2) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2) exhibit variable olfactory bulb dysgenesis and GnRH neuronal migration defects reminiscent of human GnRH deficiency. Objectives: We aimed to screen a large cohort of patients with Kallmann syndrome (KS) and normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) for mutations in PROK2/PROKR2, evaluate their prevalence, define the genotype/phenotype relationship, and assess the functionality of these mutant alleles in vitro. Design: Sequencing of the PROK2 and PROKR2 genes was performed in 170 KS patients and 154 nIHH. Mutations were examined using early growth response 1-luciferase assays in HEK 293 cells and aequorin assays in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Results: Four heterozygous and one homozygous PROK2 mutation (p.A24P, p.C34Y, p.I50M, p.R73C, and p.I55fsX1) were identified in five probands. Four probands had KS and one nIHH, and all had absent puberty. Each mutant peptide impaired receptor signaling in vitro except the I50M. There were 11 patients who carried a heterozygous PROKR2 mutation (p.R85C, p.Y113H, p.V115M, p.R164Q, p.L173R, p.W178S, p.S188L, p.R248Q, p.V331M, and p.R357W). Among them, six had KS, four nIHH, and one KS proband carried both a PROKR2 (p.V115M) and PROK2 (p.A24P) mutation. Reproductive phenotypes ranged from absent to partial puberty to complete reversal of GnRH deficiency after discontinuation of therapy. All mutant alleles appear to decrease intracellular calcium mobilization; seven exhibited decreased MAPK signaling, and six displayed decreased receptor expression. Nonreproductive phenotypes included fibrous dysplasia, sleep disorder, synkinesia, andepilepsy. Finally, considerable variability was evident in family members with the same mutation, including asymptomatic carriers. Conclusion: Loss-of-function mutations in PROK2 and PROKR2 underlie both KS and nIHH. Copyright © 2008 by The Endocrine Society.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Cole LW, Sidis Y, Zhang C, Quinton R, Plummer L, Pignatelli D, Hughes VA, Dwyer AA, Raivio T, Hayes FJ, Seminara SB, Huot C, Alos N, Speiser P, Takeshita A, Van Vliet G, Pearce SHS, Crowley Jr WF, Zhou Q-Y, Pitteloud N

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Year: 2008

Volume: 93

Issue: 9

Pages: 3551-3559

ISSN (print): 0021-972X

ISSN (electronic): 1945-7197

Publisher: The Endocrine Society


DOI: 10.1210/jc.2007-2654


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Funder referenceFunder name
R01HD015788-21National Institutes of Health
U54HD028138-16National Institutes of Health