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Preliminary reference levels in interventional cardiology

Lookup NU author(s): Simon Willis, Dr Keith Faulkner


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This article describes the European DIMOND approach to defining reference levels (RLs) for radiation doses delivered to patients during two types of invasive cardiology procedures, namely coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Representative centres of six European countries recorded patients' doses in terms of dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time and number of radiographic exposures, using X-ray equipment that has been subject to constancy testing. In addition, a DAP trigger level for cardiac procedures which should alert the operator to possible skin injury, was set to 300 Gyxcm(2). The estimation of maximum skin dose was recommended in the event that a DAP trigger level was likely to be exceeded. The proposed RLs for CA and PTCA were for DAP 45 Gyxcm(2) and 75 Gyxcm(2), for fluoroscopy time 7.5 min and 17 min and for number of frames 1250 and 1300, respectively. The proposed RLs should be considered as a first approach to help in the optimisation of these procedures. More studies are required to establish certain 'tolerances' from the proposed levels taking into account the complexity of the procedure and the patient's size.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Neofotistou V, Vano E, Padovani R, Kotre J, Dowling A, Toivonen M, Kottou S, Tsapaki V, Willis S, Bernardi G, Faulkner K

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: European Radiology

Year: 2003

Volume: 13

Issue: 10

Pages: 2259-2263

ISSN (print): 0938-7994

ISSN (electronic):

Publisher: Springer


DOI: 10.1007/s00330-003-1831-x


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