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Gene expression and neuroblastoma cell differentiation in response to retinoic acid: differential effects of 9-cis and all-trans retinoic acid

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Chris RedfernORCiD, Professor Penny Lovat, Professor Archibald Malcolm, Professor Andrew Pearson


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Retinoic acid has considerable potential for the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cancer. Neuroblastoma cells differentiate in response to retinoic acid in vitro, an observation that has led to clinical trials using either the 13-cis or all-trans isomers of retinoic acid. We review the effects of retinoic acid on neuroblastoma, and the potential involvement of nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). 9-cis retinoic acid is a ligand for RXRs, and we review recent data on the differential effects of 9-cis and all-trans retinoic acid on neuroblastoma differentiation and proliferation in vitro, and possible mechanisms of action via hetero- and homodimers of RARs and RXRs. Although there is uncertainty whether or not 9-cis retinoic acid produces its biological effects primarily via RXR homodimers, in vitro data suggest that this isomer of retinoic acid or stable analogues may have considerable potential for the treatment of resistant, disseminated neuroblastoma.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Redfern CPF, Lovat PE, Malcolm AJ, Pearson ADJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: European Journal of Cancer

Year: 1995

Volume: 31A

Issue: 4

Pages: 486-494

Print publication date: 01/01/1995

ISSN (print): 0959-8049

ISSN (electronic): 1879-0852


DOI: 10.1016/0959-8049(95)00066-R

PubMed id: 7576951


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