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A Neocortical Delta Rhythm Facilitates Reciprocal Interlaminar Interactions via Nested Theta Rhythms

Lookup NU author(s): Lucy Carracedo, Henrik Kjeldsen, Dr Alistair Jenkins, Dr Ian Schofield, Professor Mark Cunningham, Professor Miles Whittington



Delta oscillations (1-4 Hz) associate with deep sleep and are implicated in memory consolidation and replay of cortical responses elicited during wake states. A potent local generator has been characterized in thalamus, and local generators in neocortex have been suggested. Here we demonstrate that isolated rat neocortex generates delta rhythms in conditions mimicking the neuromodulatory state during deep sleep (low cholinergic and dopaminergic tone). The rhythm originated in an NMDA receptor-driven network of intrinsic bursting (IB) neurons in layer 5, activating a source of GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibition. In contrast, regular spiking (RS) neurons in layer 5 generated theta-frequency outputs. In layer 2/3 principal cells, outputs from IB cells associated with IPSPs, whereas those from layer 5RS neurons related to nested bursts of theta-frequency EPSPs. Both interlaminar spike and field correlations revealed a sequence of events whereby sparse spiking in layer 2/3 was partially reflected back from layer 5 on each delta period. We suggest that these reciprocal, interlaminar interactions may represent a "Helmholtz machine"-like process to control synaptic rescaling during deep sleep.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Carracedo LM, Kjeldsen H, Cunnington L, Jenkins A, Schofield I, Cunningham MO, Davies CH, Traub RD, Whittington MA

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Neuroscience

Year: 2013

Volume: 33

Issue: 26

Pages: 10750-10761

Print publication date: 26/06/2013

Date deposited: 24/07/2014

ISSN (print): 0270-6474

ISSN (electronic): 1529-2401

Publisher: Society for Neuroscience


DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0735-13.2013


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Funder referenceFunder name
Wolfson Foundation
Einstein Stifftung Berlin
Wellcome Trust
R01NS044133National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke