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Characterising gingivitis with inflammatory mediators and microbial species

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Simon StoneORCiD, Professor Giles McCrackenORCiD, Professor Peter Heasman


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Objectives: To characterise clinical, microbial and host-response effects following an oral hygiene intervention and subsequent professional prophylaxis in subjects with gingivitis. Methods: 31 subjects with gingivitis (Löe and Silness Gingival index > 2 at 20 sites) completed an 8-week longitudinal study comprising two interventions: Hygiene phase therapy (Sonicare FlexCare with brushing advice) at week 0 and a prophylaxis at week 4. Clinical indices (plaque (PI), bleeding (GI), probing depths (PPD)) were recorded at all clinical visits by a calibrated examiner; samples of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) taken at weeks 0,2, 4,6&8; with supra and subgingival plaque samples at weeks 0,4&8. GCF samples were analysed for levels of inflammatory mediators (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP13, RANTES) and plaque samples analysed for specific bacterial species. Results: There was a significant reduction in PI and GI from baseline to weeks 2,4,6,&8 (ANOVA p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in mean PPD from baseline (ANOVA p=0.1266). The combined effect of both interventions resulted in a greater reduction in GI and PI (ANOVA p<0.0001). Most biomarkers increased transiently post treatment, overall there were no significant differences in biomarker levels from baseline (p>0.05). Three organisms associated with health increased post treatment: Streptococcus mitis (T p=0.001), Streptococcus sanguinis (T p=0.0017) and Veillonella parvula (p<0.001). Several organisms associated with disease significantly decreased post treatment but three organisms increased post treatment: Granulicatella adjacens (T p=0.0002), Neisseria mucosa (T p=0.0161) and Prevotella nigrescens (T p=0.0466). Conclusions: Hygiene phase therapy and subsequent professional prophylaxis resulted in improvements in gingival health. The combined clinical effects of both interventions were greater than those with hygiene phase therapy alone. There were no correlations between biomarker levels and clinical indices. There were no statistical correlations between levels of microbial species and clinical indices.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Stone SJ, McCracken GI, Kumar P, Offenbacher S, Aspiras M, Delauranti M, Heasman PA

Publication type: Conference Proceedings (inc. Abstract)

Publication status: Published

Conference Name: IADR/AADR/CADR General Session and Exhibition 2013

Year of Conference: 2013

Pages: 2179

Print publication date: 23/03/2013

Acceptance date: 23/03/2013

Publisher: J Dent Res 90 (Spec Iss A)