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Future orientation and smoking cessation: secondary analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial

Lookup NU author(s): Jane Beenstock, Dr Jean Adams


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Aims To examine the association between future orientation (how individuals consider and value outcomes in the future) and smoking cessation at 4 weeks and 6 months post quit-date in individuals enrolled in a smoking cessation study. Design Cohort analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting UK primary care. Participants Adults aged 18 years smoking 15 cigarettes daily, prepared to quit in the next 2 weeks. Measurements Future orientation was measured prior to quitting and at 4 weeks post-quitting using the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale. Smoking cessation at 4 weeks and 6 months was confirmed biochemically. Those lost to follow-up were assumed to not be abstinent. Potential confounders adjusted for were: age, gender, educational attainment, nicotine dependence and longest previous period quit. Findings A total of 697 participants provided data at baseline; 422 provided information on future orientation at 4 weeks. There was no evidence of an association between future orientation at baseline and abstinence at 4 weeks [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.05, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.80-1.38] or 6 months (aOR=0.85, 95% CI=0.60-1.20). There was no change in future orientation from baseline to 4 weeks and no evidence that the change differed between those who were and were not quit at 4 weeks (adjusted regression coefficient=-0.04, 95% CI=-0.16 to 0.08). Conclusions In smokers who are prepared to quit in the next 2 weeks, the extent of future orientation is unlikely to be a strong predictor of quitting over 4 weeks or 6 months and any increase in future orientation following quitting is likely to be small.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Beenstock J, Lindson-Hawley N, Aveyard P, Adams J

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Addiction

Year: 2014

Volume: 109

Issue: 10

Pages: 1732-1740

Print publication date: 01/10/2014

Online publication date: 14/07/2014

Acceptance date: 14/05/2014

ISSN (print): 0965-2140

ISSN (electronic): 1360-0443

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


DOI: 10.1111/add.12621


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Funder referenceFunder name
Economic and Social Research Council
British Heart Foundation
Cancer Research UK
Fuse, the Centre for Translational Research in Public Health
Medical Research Council
National Institute for Health Research under UK Clinical Research Collaboration
09-110-01NIHR HTA