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Stealth Amphotericin B nanoparticles for oral drug delivery: In vitro optimization

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Bushra alQuadeib, Professor Lidija Siller, Dr Ben Horrocks, Professor Matthew Wright



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


PurposeAmphotericin B (AmB) is an effective anti-fungal and anti-leishmanial agent. However, AmB has low oral bioavailability (0.3%) and adverse effects (e.g., nephrotoxicity). The objectives of this study were to improve the oral bioavailability by entrapping AmB in pegylated (PEG) poly lactide co glycolide copolymer (PLGA–PEG) nanoparticles (NPs). The feasibility of different surfactants and stabilizers on the mean particle size (MPS) and entrapment efficiency were also investigated.Materials and methodsNPs of AmB were prepared by a modified emulsification diffusion method employing a vitamin E derivative as a stabilizer. Physicochemical properties and particle size characterization were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, in vitro dissolution profiles were performed for all formulated AmB NPs.ResultsMPS of the prepared spherical particles of AmB ranged from 26.4 ± 2.9 to 1068 ± 489.8 nm. An increased stirring rate favored AmB NPs with a smaller MPS. There was a significant reduction in MPS, drug content and drug release, when AmB NPs were prepared using the diblock polymer PLGA–PEG with 15% PEG. Addition of three emulsifying agents poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Vitamin E (TPGS) and pluronic F-68 to AmB formulations led to a significant reduction in particle size and increase in drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) compared to addition of PVP alone. FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated a successful loading of AmB to pegylated PLGA–PEG copolymers. PLGA–PEG copolymer entrapment efficiency of AmB was increased up to 56.7%, with 92.7% drug yield. After a slow initial release, between 20% and 54% of AmB was released in vitro within 24 h phosphate buffer containing 2% sodium deoxycholate and were best fit Korsmeyer–Peppas model. In conclusion, PLGA–PEG diblock copolymer with 15% PEG produced a significant reduction (>70%) in MPS with highest drug content. The percentage of PEG in the copolymer and the surfactant/stabilizer used had a direct effect on AmB release in vitro, entrapment efficiency and MPS. These developed formulations are feasible, effective and improved alternatives to other carriers for oral delivery of AmB.

Publication metadata

Author(s): AL-Quadeib BT, Radwan MA, Siller L, Horrocks B, Wright MC

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal

Year: 2015

Volume: 23

Issue: 3

Pages: 290-302

Print publication date: 01/07/2016

Online publication date: 20/11/2014

Acceptance date: 11/11/2014

Date deposited: 22/06/2015

ISSN (print): 1319-0164

ISSN (electronic): 2213-7475

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.11.004


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