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Surface and subsurface characterisation in micro-milling of monocrystalline silicon

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Dehong Huo, Dr Zi Jie Choong, Dr Ketan Pancholi, Professor Patrick Degenaar



This is the final published version of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by Springer London, 2015.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


This paper presents an experimental investigation on surface and subsurface characterisation of micro-machined single-crystal silicon with (100) orientation. Full immersion slot milling was conducted using solid cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond-coated fine grain tungsten carbide micro-end mills with a uniform tool diameter of 0.5 mm. The micro-machining experiments were carried out on an ultra-precision micro-machining centre. Formal design of experiments (DoE) techniques were applied to design and analysis of the machining process. Surface roughness, edge chipping formation and subsurface residual stress under varying machining conditions were characterised using white light interferometry, SEM and Raman microspectroscopy. Tens of nanometre-level surface roughness can be achieved under the certain machining conditions, and influences of variation of cutting parameters including cutting speeds, feedrate and axial depth of cut on surface roughness were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Raman microspectroscopy studies show that compressive subsurface residual stress and amorphous phase transformation were observed on most of the micro-machined subsurface, which provides evidence of ductile mode cutting. Surface and subsurface characterisation studies show that the primary material removal mode is ductile or partial ductile using lower feedrate for both tools, and diamond-coated tools can produce better surface quality. Silicon brain implants were fabricated with good dimensional accuracy and edge quality using the optimised machining conditions, which demonstrated that micro-milling is an effective process for fabrication of silicon components at a few tens to a few hundreds of micron scale.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Huo DH, Lin C, Choong Z, Pancholi K, Degenaar P

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology

Year: 2015

Volume: 81

Issue: 5-8

Pages: 1319-1331

Print publication date: 01/11/2015

Online publication date: 21/05/2015

Acceptance date: 11/05/2015

Date deposited: 06/04/2016

ISSN (print): 0268-3768

ISSN (electronic): 1433-3015

Publisher: Springer London


DOI: 10.1007/s00170-015-7308-7


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Funder referenceFunder name
Visiting Scholar Foundation of the State Key Lab. of Mechanical Transmission in Chongqing University
EP/M020657/1Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council