Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Evaluation of reduced-sodium Irish soda bread leavened using potassium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Gerry O'BrienORCiD


Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available.


Evaluation of reduced-sodium Irish soda bread leavened using potassium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate Ray M.H. Ip[1], Archie McKinley[2] and Gerard M. O’Brien[3] Abstract In recent years, concerns regarding the potential health-related effects of high dietary sodium intake have led to efforts on the part of food processors to reduce the sodium content of food products. Irish soda bread (ISB) is a chemically-leavened bakery product that is traditionally made using wheat flour, buttermilk, salt and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). In contrast to yeast-leavened bread, ISB is leavened by carbon dioxide, produced primarily as a result of the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and lactic acid in the buttermilk. The aim of this project was to develop a formulation of ISB with reduced sodium content and of comparable quality to that of traditional ISB, through using non-sodium leavening agents. In baking trials using NaHCO3-leavened ISB as a ‘control’, formulations featuring 50% or 100% substitution using potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) and ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) were assessed in terms of specific volume (using a TexVol BVM-L190 volume analyser) and crumb hardness (using a Stevens LRFA texture analyser). In two successive trials, none of the test-formulations differed significantly (P > 0.05) from the “control” formulation in terms of specific volume. In terms of the other key variable, crumb hardness, formulations featuring 100% substitution with KHCO3 and NH4HCO3 did not differ significantly from the “control” formulation in a three-way comparative trial (P > 0.05), although the KHCO3 formulation yielded ISB that was significantly harder than the ‘control’ in one paired-comparison trial (P < 0.05), and harder than the NH4CO3 formulation in another (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the performance of NH4HCO3-leavened ISB was comparable to that of the traditional ‘control’ formulation in terms of both specific volume and texture, indicating that – subject to consumer acceptability - it may have potential to succeed as a ‘healthier’ reduced-sodium alternative to traditional ISB. (288 words) Keywords: soda-bread, sodium, bicarbonate, texture, specific volume. [1] (BSc Hons); Maxim’s Caterers Limited, 14 Dai Fu Street, Tai Po Industrial Estate, Tai Po, NT, Hong Kong. Tel: +852-9758-9144; email: [2] (DPhil.); School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland. Tel: +44-28-7012-4570; e-mail: [3] (PhD); Newcastle University Singapore, 180 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 8, Singapore 569830. Tel: +65-6550-1969; e-mail: gerard.o’

Publication metadata

Author(s): Ip RMH, McKinley A, OBrien GM

Publication type: Conference Proceedings (inc. Abstract)

Publication status: Published

Conference Name: 14th ASEAN Food Conference 2015

Year of Conference: 2015

Acceptance date: 10/04/2015