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Ageing modifies the effects of beetroot juice supplementation on 24-hour blood pressure variability: An individual participant meta-analysis

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Mario Siervo, Dr Jose Lara-Gallegos, Ammar Ashor, Dr Kirsten BrandtORCiD, Othman Qadir, Professor John Mathers


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© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Objectives: Abnormal circadian oscillations of blood pressure (BP) and nocturnal-diurnal BP differences (i.e., dipping) increase cardiovascular risk. Whether inorganic nitrate supplementation influences 24-hr BP variability is currently unknown. We studied the effects of high-nitrate beetroot juice supplementation on BP variability measured by 24-hr ambulatory BP monitoring (24-hr ABPM) in older subjects. Methods: Data from four independent randomised clinical trials were collated. Eighty-five older participants (age range: 55-76 years) were included in the final database. Two trials had an open-label, parallel design and two trials had a cross-over, double-blind design. Participants were randomised to either beetroot juice or placebo. Changes in 24-hr ABPM (daily, diurnal, nocturnal), variability (weighted-SDs), night-dipping, morning surge for systolic and diastolic BP were measured. Meta-analysis was conducted to obtain pooled estimates of the effect size for each BP outcome. Sub-group analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of age, BMI, gender, BP status and changes in nitrite concentrations on the effect size. Results: The pooled effect of beetroot juice on all BP outcomes was not significant. Beetroot juice ingestion determined a significant decrease in nocturnal systolic BP variability in subjects aged less than 65y (2.8mmHg, -4.5 -1.0, p=0.002) compared to the older group (≥65y; 1.0mmHg, -2.2 4.2, p=0.54). A greater change in NO<inf>2</inf><sup>-</sup> concentrations after beetroot supplementation was associated with significant differences for nocturnal mean (-3.4mmHg, -0.6 -2.4, p=0.02) and variability (-0.8mmHg, -1.5 -0.06, p=0.03) of systolic BP. Conclusions: The vascular responsiveness to inorganic nitrate may be modified by mechanisms of vascular ageing influencing the reducing capacity to convert inorganic nitrate into nitrite and tissue-specific responses to dietary nitrate supplementation.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Siervo M, Lara J, Jajja A, Sutyarjoko A, Ashor AW, Brandt K, Qadir O, Mathers JC, Benjamin N, Winyard PG, Anning C, Shore A, Gilchrist M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Nitric Oxide

Year: 2015

Volume: 47

Pages: 97-105

Print publication date: 01/05/2015

Online publication date: 29/04/2015

Acceptance date: 25/04/2015

ISSN (print): 1089-8603

ISSN (electronic): 1089-8611

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/j.niox.2015.04.007


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