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Lookup NU author(s): Dr Christopher Bacon,
Dr Mario Abinun,
Professor Andrew Cant
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).
© 2016 The Authors Background Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS) is a recently described combined immunodeficiency resulting from gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ). Objective We sought to review the clinical, immunologic, histopathologic, and radiologic features of APDS in a large genetically defined international cohort. Methods We applied a clinical questionnaire and performed review of medical notes, radiology, histopathology, and laboratory investigations of 53 patients with APDS. Results Recurrent sinopulmonary infections (98%) and nonneoplastic lymphoproliferation (75%) were common, often from childhood. Other significant complications included herpesvirus infections (49%), autoinflammatory disease (34%), and lymphoma (13%). Unexpectedly, neurodevelopmental delay occurred in 19% of the cohort, suggesting a role for PI3Kδ in the central nervous system; consistent with this, PI3Kδ is broadly expressed in the developing murine central nervous system. Thoracic imaging revealed high rates of mosaic attenuation (90%) and bronchiectasis (60%). Increased IgM levels (78%), IgG deficiency (43%), and CD4 lymphopenia (84%) were significant immunologic features. No immunologic marker reliably predicted clinical severity, which ranged from asymptomatic to death in early childhood. The majority of patients received immunoglobulin replacement and antibiotic prophylaxis, and 5 patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Five patients died from complications of APDS. Conclusion APDS is a combined immunodeficiency with multiple clinical manifestations, many with incomplete penetrance and others with variable expressivity. The severity of complications in some patients supports consideration of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe childhood disease. Clinical trials of selective PI3Kδ inhibitors offer new prospects for APDS treatment.
Author(s): Coulter TI, Chandra A, Bacon CM, Babar J, Curtis J, Screaton N, Goodlad JR, Farmer G, Steele CL, Leahy TR, Doffinger R, Baxendale H, Bernatoniene J, Edgar JDM, Longhurst HJ, Ehl S, Speckmann C, Grimbacher B, Sediva A, Milota T, Faust SN, Williams AP, Hayman G, Kucuk ZY, Hague R, French P, Brooker R, Forsyth P, Herriot R, Cancrini C, Palma P, Ariganello P, Conlon N, Feighery C, Gavin PJ, Jones A, Imai K, Ibrahim MAA, Markelj G, Abinun M, Rieux-Laucat F, Latour S, Pellier I, Fischer A, Touzot F, Casanova J-L, Durandy A, Burns SO, Savic S, Kumararatne DS, Moshous D, Kracker S, Vanhaesebroeck B, Okkenhaug K, Picard C, Nejentsev S, Condliffe AM, Cant AJ
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Journal: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Print publication date: 01/02/2017
Online publication date: 16/07/2016
Acceptance date: 03/06/2016
Date deposited: 25/04/2017
ISSN (print): 0091-6749
ISSN (electronic): 1097-6825
Publisher: Mosby Inc.
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