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T-regulatory cells exhibit a biphasic response to prolonged endurance exercise in humans

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Tom Clifford, Matt Wood, Philip Stocks, Professor Emma Stevenson, Professor Catharien Hilkens



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2017 The Author(s) Purpose: T-regulatory cells (Tregs) are a sub-population of lymphocytes that act to suppress aberrant immune responses. We investigated changes in the numbers of naïve and terminally differentiated Tregs in the peripheral blood to establish their role in the immuno-suppressive response to prolonged exercise. Methods: Blood was drawn from seventeen experienced runners (age 40 ± 12 years; height 1.75 ± 0.08 m; mass 71.4 ± 10.8 kg) before, ~1 h after (POST-1h), and on the day following the marathon (POST-1d). Tregs (CD3+CD4+Foxp3+CD25++CD127−) were analysed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using flow cytometry. The markers CD45RA and HLA-DR were included to define naïve and terminally differentiated Tregs, respectively. Results: The absolute number of Tregs decreased (27%) POST-1h marathon (P < 0.001) but increased (21%) at POST-1d (P < 0.01). Naïve CD45RA+ Tregs fell by 39% POST-1h (P < 0.01) but were unaffected POST-1d (P > 0.05). In contrast, an increased number of Tregs expressing HLA-DR was observed at POST-1d (P < 0.01). Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels in the serum all increased POST-1h (P > 0.05) but returned to pre-exercise levels POST-1d. The suppressive cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta, was unaffected by the marathon (P > 0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that Tregs do not play a major role in immune suppression in the early hours of recovery from a marathon. However, terminally differentiated HLA-DR+ Tregs are mobilized the following day, which could represent a compensatory attempt by the host to restore immune homeostasis and limit excessive cell damage.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Clifford T, Wood MJ, Stocks P, Howatson G, Stevenson EJ, Hilkens CMU

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: European Journal of Applied Physiology

Year: 2017

Volume: 117

Issue: 8

Pages: 1727-1737

Print publication date: 01/08/2017

Online publication date: 23/06/2017

Acceptance date: 17/06/2017

Date deposited: 12/07/2017

ISSN (print): 1439-6319

ISSN (electronic): 1439-6327

Publisher: Springer Verlag


DOI: 10.1007/s00421-017-3667-0


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