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Diet-induced weight loss has chronic tissue-specific effects on glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight postmenopausal women

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Brian Walker

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Abstract

© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.Tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism is altered in obesity, and may increase cardiovascular risk. This dysregulation is normalized by short-term calorie restriction and weight loss, an effect that varies with dietary macronutrient composition. However, tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism has not been studied during long-term (>6 months) dietary interventions. Therefore our aim was to test whether long-term dietary interventions, either a paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a diet according to Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) could normalize tissue-specific glucocorticoid metabolism in overweight and obese women.Subjects/Methods:Forty-nine overweight/obese postmenopausal women were randomized to a paleolithic diet or a diet according to NNR for 24 months. At baseline, 6 and 24 months anthropometric measurements, insulin sensitivity, excretion of urinary glucocorticoid metabolites in 24-hour collections, conversion of orally administered cortisone to plasma cortisol and transcript levels of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) in subcutaneous adipose tissue were studied.Results:Both diet groups achieved significant and sustained weight loss. Weight loss with the PD was greater than on NNR diet after 6 months (P<0.001) but similar at 24 months. Urinary measurement of 5α-reductase activity was increased after 24 months in both groups compared with baseline (P<0.001). Subcutaneous adipose tissue 11βHSD1 gene expression decreased at 6 and 24 months in both diet groups (P=0.036). Consistent with increased liver 11βHSD1, conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol increased at 6 months (P=0.023) but was unchanged compared with baseline by 24 months.Conclusions:Long-term weight loss in postmenopausal women has tissue-specific and time-dependent effects on glucocorticoid metabolism. This may alter local-tissue cortisol exposure contributing to improved metabolic function during weight loss.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Stomby A, Simonyte K, Mellberg C, Ryberg M, Stimson RH, Larsson C, Lindahl B, Andrew R, Walker BR, Olsson T

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: International Journal of Obesity

Year: 2015

Volume: 39

Issue: 5

Pages: 814-819

Online publication date: 28/10/2014

Acceptance date: 13/10/2014

ISSN (print): 0307-0565

ISSN (electronic): 1476-5497

Publisher: Nature Publishing Group

URL: https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2014.188

DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2014.188

PubMed id: 25349058


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