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The Relative Effectiveness Of Endorsers: The Identity Badge of CEOs and Founders Versus the Attractiveness of Celebrities

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Saurabh BhattacharyaORCiD



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by World Advertising Research Center, 2019.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


Using source credibility and source attractiveness models, this study examines the endorsement effectiveness of CEOs and founders as compared with celebrities, especially when CEOs and founders are not well-known or popular. Advertisements with CEOs and founders is a fast-growing brand endorsement tactic. Recent studies also indicate that CEOs as business leaders influence consumers’ purchase intention. This study’s findings, based on a cafe brand and replicated for a hotel and pub company in the UK, indicate that when the identity of CEOs and founders is signaled through their identity badge, i.e., title and designation, consumers find an advertisement more effective as compared to an advertisement with celebrities. Furthermore, advertisements with founders as endorsers were found to be more effective for new products, while CEOs as endorsers were more effective for existing products.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Agnihotri A, Bhattacharya S

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Advertising Research

Year: 2019

Volume: 59

Issue: 3

Pages: 356-369

Print publication date: 01/09/2019

Online publication date: 22/10/2018

Acceptance date: 17/01/2018

Date deposited: 06/03/2018

ISSN (print): 0021-8499

ISSN (electronic): 1740-1909

Publisher: World Advertising Research Center


DOI: 10.2501/JAR-2018-039


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