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Occupant Injury Risk Assessment and Protective Measures in Frontal Collision of a Bus

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Emmanuel Matsika, Professor Mark RobinsonORCiD



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by Taylor & Francis, 2019.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


A significant issue worldwide is a bus frontal collision which can result in more than 10 fatalities per incident. The purpose of this study is to develop recommendations aimed at reducing occupant injury risk in such frontal collisions. To assess potential injuries, sled tests were carried out based on ECE R80. The influence of a lap belt on the kinematics and injury characteristics of the occupant was investigated. A LS-DYNA and MADYMO coupling method was used to study the influence of seat layout variables including seat pitch, height difference and back inclination angleon injury to different occupant body parts. By applying a combination of ECE R80 with FMVSS 208, the effectiveness and relevance of current test methods on occupant injury were evaluated. Subsequently, the protection measures were developed to reduce occupant injury risk. The results show that secondary collision with the front seat back can cause severe head and neck injuries. Although the lap belt can restrict the movement of the pelvis and lower limbs, the collision and relative slippage between the head and the front seat back can still cause a high neck bending moment. The study further reveals that seat layout variables should be design-specified to optimal values that minimize such injuries. Recommendations have been made on the development of government policy and industry standards aimed at improving the occupant injury risk ina frontal crash. It is strongly recommended to include injury severity based on head acceleration (not only HIC) and neck injury criteria.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Peng Q, Sun T, Zhu P, Han F, Matsika E, Robinson M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: International Journal of Crashworthiness

Year: 2019

Volume: 24

Issue: 4

Pages: 429-441

Online publication date: 04/06/2018

Acceptance date: 12/03/2018

Date deposited: 03/04/2018

ISSN (print): 1358-8265

ISSN (electronic): 1754-2111

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


DOI: 10.1080/13588265.2018.1472722

Notes: Paper written as a results of the collaboration with Xiamen University of Technology, China. A research MoU exists.


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