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What helped and hindered implementation of an intervention package to reduce smoking in pregnancy: Process evaluation guided by normalization process theory

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Ruth Bell, Professor Vera Araujo-SoaresORCiD, Dr Svetlana Glinianaia, Emeritus Professor Eugene Milne, Professor Martin White



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


©, involving staff training #x000A9; 2019 The Author(s). Background: Smoking in pregnancy causes harm to mother and baby. Despite evidence from trials of what helps women quit, implementation in the real world has been hard to achieve. An evidence-based intervention, babyClear

Publication metadata

Author(s): Jones S, Hamilton S, Bell R, Araujo-Soares V, Glinianaia SV, Milne EMG, White M, Willmore M, Shucksmith J

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: BMC Health Services Research

Year: 2019

Volume: 19

Issue: 1

Online publication date: 09/05/2019

Acceptance date: 24/04/2019

Date deposited: 29/05/2019

ISSN (electronic): 1472-6963

Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.


DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4122-1

PubMed id: 31072363


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Funder referenceFunder name
MR/K02325X/1Medical Research Council (MRC)
NIHR School for Public Health Research