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The application of Local Indicators for Categorical Data (LICD) to explorespatial dependence in archaeological spaces

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Francesco CarrerORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


Global and local analyses of spatial autocorrelation are commonplace in spatial archaeology. However, theyare exclusively focused on continuous numerical parameters, even though logical (presence/absence) andcategorical parameters are equally frequent in archaeological research. Global tests of spatial dependence forcategorical data are routinely used in other fields, and local versions of these tests (known as LICD) haverecently been developed. This paper provides a detailed description of such methods, and presents the firstadaptation and application of LICD to archaeological data. Different LICD versions have been tested on twocase-studies: (a) an archaeological grid, with object presence or absence recorded for each cell; (b) HistoricLandscape Characterisation, with the origin of character types (mediaeval, post-mediaeval or modern) recordedfor each region. These examples seek to showcase and promote the use of LICD in landscape and intra-sitearchaeology.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Carrer F, Kossowski TM, Wilk J, Pietrzak MB, Bivand RS

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Archaeological Science

Year: 2021

Volume: 126

Print publication date: 01/02/2021

Online publication date: 15/12/2020

Acceptance date: 02/12/2020

Date deposited: 17/12/2020

ISSN (print): 0305-4403

ISSN (electronic): 1095-9238

Publisher: Elsevier


DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2020.105306


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