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Prevalence and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Andrea FairleyORCiD, Dr Connor Richardson, Dr Stella Paddick, Dr Mario Siervo, Dr Louise Robinson



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by IOS Press, 2021.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


AbstractBackground: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a cognitive state associated with increased risk of dementia. Little research on MCI exists from low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), despite high prevalence of dementia in these settings. Objective: This systematic review aimed to review epidemiological reports to determine the prevalence of MCI and its associated risk factors in LMICs. Methods: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched from inception until November 2019. Eligible articles reported on MCI in population or community-based studies from LMICs. No restrictions on the definition of MCI used as long as it was clearly defined. Results: 4,621 articles were screened, and 78 retained. In total, n = 23 different LMICs were represented; mostly from China (n = 55 studies). Few studies from countries defined as lower-middle income (n = 14), low income (n = 4), or from population representative samples (n = 4). There was large heterogeneity in how MCI was diagnosed; with Petersen criteria the most commonly applied (n = 26). Prevalence of aMCI (Petersen criteria) ranged from 0.6%to 22.3%. Similar variability existed across studies using the International Working Group Criteria for aMCI (range 4.5%to 18.3%) and all-MCI (range 6.1%to 30.4%). Risk of MCI was associated with demographic (e.g., age), health (e.g., cardio-metabolic disease), and lifestyle (e.g., social isolation, smoking, diet and physical activity) factors. Conclusion: Outside of China, few MCI studies have been conducted in LMIC settings. There is an urgent need for population representative epidemiological studies to determine MCI prevalence in LMICs. MCI diagnostic methodology also needs to be standardized. This will allow for cross-study comparison and future resource planning.

Publication metadata

Author(s): McGrattan AM, Zhu Y, Richardson CD, Mohan D, Soh YC, Sajjad A, Aller CV, Chen S, Paddick SM, Prina M, Siervo M, Robinson LA, Stephan BCM

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease

Year: 2021

Volume: 79

Issue: 2

Pages: 743-762

Print publication date: 19/01/2021

Online publication date: 17/01/2021

Acceptance date: 03/11/2020

Date deposited: 09/02/2021

ISSN (print): 1387-2877

Publisher: IOS Press


DOI: 10.3233/JAD-201043

PubMed id: 33361599


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