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One way or another? An international comparison of expatriate performance management in multinational companies

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Benjamin Bader



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Due to the high costs and strategic importance of expatriate assignments, expatriate performance management (EPM) plays an increasingly important role for multinational enterprises (MNEs). However, research on EPM is still in its infancy. Drawing from the convergence/divergence debate in international human resource management, this study investigates and compares EPM strategies and practices across MNEs from three different country clusters to better understand whether EPM practices tend to converge, diverge, or crossverge (i.e., show aspects of both). Results from surveying 132 Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, and Japanese MNEs reveal prominent differences (divergence) at the EPM strategic level such that Japanese MNEs tend to pursue more ethnocentric staffing strategies and design EPM systems specifically tailored to expatriates. On the practice level, we found both commonalities and differences between Japanese and Anglo-Saxon and Germanic MNEs, pointing towards crossvergence. Theoretical and practical implications of our results are discussed.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Bader AK, Bader B, Froese FJ, Sekiguchi T

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Human Resource Management

Year: 2021

Pages: epub ahead of print

Online publication date: 16/06/2021

Acceptance date: 23/03/2021

Date deposited: 23/03/2021

ISSN (electronic): 1099-050X

Publisher: Wiley


DOI: 10.1002/hrm.22065


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