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Early speech and language outcomes in non-syndromic cleft palate with and without Robin Sequence: A matched case study

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Stephanie Van Eeden, Dr Helen StringerORCiD



This is the authors' accepted manuscript of an article that has been published in its final definitive form by Newcastle University, 2021.

For re-use rights please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.


Robin Sequence (RS) is a rare condition leading to orofacial anomalies, including cleft palate. Evidence suggests children with RS have poor long-term speech and language outcomes, even in comparison to those with isolated cleft palate. This study compared speech and language outcomes of children with isolated cleft palate (ICP) to children with cleft palate and RS (CPRS). A retrospective case-note review was completed of 74 matched children (37 ICP; 37 CPRS). Speech and language assessment at 18-months, three and five years provided data for palatal function and articulation. At age five years, children with CPRS had significantly more frequent and severe articulation errors than children with ICP. Palatal function across the two groups was not significantly different. Expressive and receptive language at three years did not differ. Results support previous studies highlighting the severity and frequency of articulation errors associated with CPRS. Further longitudinal investigation into language outcomes is recommended.Robin Sequence, cleft palate, speech, articulation, velopharyngeal insufficiency

Publication metadata

Author(s): Baker J, van Eeden S, Stringer H

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Annual Review of Education, Communication, and Language Sciences

Year: 2021

Volume: Special Issue

Pages: 5-19

Online publication date: 28/05/2021

Acceptance date: 29/03/2021

Date deposited: 04/09/2021

ISSN (electronic): 1743-159X

Publisher: Newcastle University