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Genetic profiles and risk stratification in adult de novo acute myeloid leukaemia in relation to age, gender, and ethnicity: A study from Malaysia

Lookup NU author(s): Angeli Ambayya, Professor Anthony MoormanORCiD, Dr Jeyanthy Eswaran, Sarina Sulong



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2021 by the authors. Li-censee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Hitherto, no data describing the heterogeneity of genetic profiles and risk stratifications of adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in Southeast Asia are reported. This study assessed genetic profiles, Moorman’s hierarchical classification, and ELN 2017‐based risk stratifications in relation to age, gender, and ethnicity in Malaysian adult AML patients. A total of 854 AML patients: male (52%), female (48%) were recruited comprising three main ethnic groups: Malays (59%), Chinese (32%) and Indians (8%). Of 307 patients with abnormal karyotypes: 36% exhibited translocations; 10% deletions and 5% trisomies. The commonest genotype was FLT3‐ITD‐NPM1wt (276/414; 66.7%). ELN 2017 risk stratification was performed on 494 patients, and 41% were classified as favourable, 39% as intermediate and 20% as adverse groups. More females (47%) were in the favourable risk group compared to males (37%), whereas adverse risk was higher in patients above 60 (24%) of age compared to below 60 (18%) patients. We observed heterogeneity in the distribution of genetic profiles and risk stratifications between the age groups and gender, but not among the ethnic groups. Our study elucidated the diversity of adult AML genetic profiles between Southeast Asians and other regions worldwide.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Ambayya A, Moorman AV, Sathar J, Eswaran J, Sulong S, Hassan R

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Year: 2022

Volume: 23

Issue: 1

Online publication date: 27/12/2021

Acceptance date: 22/12/2021

Date deposited: 08/02/2022

ISSN (print): 1661-6596

ISSN (electronic): 1422-0067

Publisher: MDPI


DOI: 10.3390/ijms23010258


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Funder referenceFunder name
GIPS-PhD 311/PPSP/4404814