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Updating and Integrating Core Outcome Sets for Localised, Locally Advanced, Metastatic, and Nonmetastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: An Update from the PIONEER Consortium

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Rakesh Heer



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


© 2022 The Authors. Context: Harmonisation of outcome reporting and definitions for clinical trials and routine patient records can enable health care systems to provide more efficient outcome-driven and patient-centred interventions. We report on the work of the PIONEER Consortium in this context for prostate cancer (PCa). Objective: To update and integrate existing core outcome sets (COS) for PCa for the different stages of the disease, assess their applicability, and develop standardised definitions of prioritised outcomes. Evidence acquisition: We followed a four-stage process involving: (1) systematic reviews; (2) qualitative interviews; (3) expert group meetings to agree standardised terminologies; and (4) recommendations for the most appropriate definitions of clinician-reported outcomes. Evidence synthesis: Following four systematic reviews, a multinational interview study, and expert group consensus meetings, we defined the most clinically suitable definitions for (1) COS for localised and locally advanced PCa and (2) COS for metastatic and nonmetastatic castration-resistant PCa. No new outcomes were identified in our COS for localised and locally advanced PCa. For our COS for metastatic and nonmetastatic castration-resistant PCa, nine new core outcomes were identified. Conclusions: These are the first COS for PCa for which the definitions of prioritised outcomes have been surveyed in a systematic, transparent, and replicable way. This is also the first time that outcome definitions across all prostate cancer COS have been agreed on by a multidisciplinary expert group and recommended for use in research and clinical practice. To limit heterogeneity across research, these COS should be recommended for future effectiveness trials, systematic reviews, guidelines and clinical practice of localised and metastatic PCa. Patient summary: Patient outcomes after treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) are difficult to compare because of variability. To allow better use of data from patients with PCa, the PIONEER Consortium has standardised and recommended outcomes (and their definitions) that should be collected as a minimum in all future studies.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Beyer K, Moris L, Lardas M, Omar MI, Healey J, Tripathee S, Gandaglia G, Venderbos LDF, Vradi E, van den Broeck T, Willemse P-P, Antunes-Lopes T, Pacheco-Figueiredo L, Monagas S, Esperto F, Flaherty S, Devecseri Z, Lam TBL, Williamson PR, Heer R, Smith EJ, Asiimwe A, Huber J, Roobol MJ, Zong J, Mason M, Cornford P, Mottet N, MacLennan SJ, N'Dow J, Briganti A, MacLennan S, Van Hemelrijck M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: European Urology

Year: 2022

Volume: 81

Issue: 5

Pages: 503-514

Print publication date: 01/05/2022

Online publication date: 17/02/2022

Acceptance date: 20/01/2022

Date deposited: 23/06/2023

ISSN (print): 0302-2838

ISSN (electronic): 1873-7560

Publisher: Elsevier B.V.


DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2022.01.042


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Funder referenceFunder name
PIONEER Consortium