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Effects of Body Forces on Turbulent Kinetic Energy Transport in Premixed Flames

Lookup NU author(s): Arun Varma, Dr Umair AhmedORCiD, Professor Nilanjan ChakrabortyORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2022, The Author(s). The effects of buoyancy on turbulent premixed flames are expected to be strong due to the large changes in density between the unburned and fully burned gases. The present work utilises three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of statistically planar turbulent premixed flames under decaying turbulence to study the influence of buoyancy on the evolution of turbulent kinetic energy within the flame brush. Four sets of turbulence parameters have been studied, with four different values of Froude number for each set. It is found that for a given set of turbulence parameters, flame wrinkling increases with an increase in body force magnitude in the case of unstable stratification, which is also reflected in the increased values of turbulent burning velocity and flame surface area. An increase in body force magnitude in the case of stable stratification acts to reduce the extent of flame wrinkling. Turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate are found to be affected by both the magnitude and direction of the body force. For low turbulence intensities considered here, turbulent kinetic energy increases from the leading edge of the flame brush before decaying eventually towards the product side of the flame brush. For high turbulence intensities, the turbulent kinetic energy is found to decay across the flame brush, and it is also found that the effect of body force on the evolution of turbulent kinetic energy is marginal in the case of high turbulence intensities. The effects of body force magnitude and direction on the statistical behaviours and closures of the various terms of the turbulent kinetic energy transport equation are analysed, and existing models have been modified to account for Froude number effects, where necessary.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Varma AR, Ahmed U, Chakraborty N

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Flow, Turbulence and Combustion

Year: 2022

Volume: 109

Pages: 143-173

Print publication date: 01/06/2022

Online publication date: 03/03/2022

Acceptance date: 21/01/2022

Date deposited: 21/01/2022

ISSN (print): 1386-6184

ISSN (electronic): 1573-1987

Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media B.V.


DOI: 10.1007/s10494-022-00318-w


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Funder referenceFunder name
computational support of Rocket, Cirrus (ec062) and ARCHER are gratefully acknowledged.
financial support of the EPSRC (EP/R029369/1)