Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Marginalization and Underrepresentation in Virtual Exchange: Reasons and Remedies

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Müge SatarORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


The recent expansion of virtual exchange (VE) in lieu of the Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing advance of technology has resulted in considerably larger numbers of VE participants for those in certain areas and contexts, yet not all would-be participants have been so fortunate. In some regions and in various contexts, challenges in VE implementation have resulted in disadvantaged populations in terms of underrepresentation and marginalization in global VE networks. To illuminate such challenges, a mixed-method approach was utilized in the current study, beginning with a global survey to elucidate reasons for underrepresentation in terms of political and governmental, institutional, and administrative, technological, pedagogical, and cultural and personal challenges. Thereafter, semi-structured interviews with instructors, administrators, and educational decision makers were conducted to gain further insights. Although VE is now well established as an impactful mode of studying abroad, various region-specific challenges remain. We conclude with recommendations on how to overcome the challenges especially in those underrepresented regions and populations.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Alami NH, Albuquerque J, Ashton LS, Elwood JA, Ewoodzie K, Hauck M, Karam J, Klimanova L, Nasr R, Satar M

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of International Students

Year: 2022

Volume: 12

Issue: S3

Pages: 57-76

Online publication date: 09/09/2022

Acceptance date: 18/06/2022

Date deposited: 22/06/2022

ISSN (print): 2162-3104

ISSN (electronic): 2166-3750

Publisher: Nepalese Student Association at University of Louisiana at Monroe


DOI: 10.32674/jis.v12iS3.4665


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric