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Guidelines for Reporting Action Simulation Studies (GRASS): proposals to improve reporting of research in Motor Imagery and Action Observation

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Daniel EavesORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Researchers from multiple disciplines have studied the simulation of actions through motor imagery, action observation, or their combination. Procedures used in these studies vary considerably between research groups, and no standardized approach to reporting experimental protocols has been proposed. This has led to under-reporting of critical details, impairing the assessment, replication, synthesis, and potential clinical translation of effects. We provide an overview of issues related to the reporting of information in action simulation studies, and discuss the benefits of standardized reporting. We propose a series of checklists that identify key details of research protocols to include when reporting action simulation studies. Each checklist comprises A) essential methodological details, B) essential details that are relevant to a specific mode of action simulation, and C) further points that may be useful on a case-by-case basis. We anticipate that the use of these guidelines will improve the understanding, reproduction, and synthesis of studies using action simulation, and enhance the translation of research using motor imagery and action observation to applied and clinical settings.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Moreno-VerdĂș M, Hamoline G, Van Caenegem EE, Waltzing BM, Forest S, Chembila-Valappil A, Khan AH, Chye S, Esselaar M, Campbell M, McAllister C, Kraeutner SN, Poliakoff E, Frank C, Eaves DL, Wakefield C, Boe S, Holmes PS, Bruton A, Vogt S, Wright D, Hardwick R

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Neuropsychologia

Year: 2024

Volume: 192

Print publication date: 10/01/2024

Online publication date: 11/11/2023

Acceptance date: 08/11/2023

Date deposited: 10/11/2023

ISSN (print): 0028-3932

ISSN (electronic): 1873-3514

Publisher: Elsevier Ltd


DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2023.108733

ePrints DOI: 10.57711/s8t9-8252


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