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Identifying the core concepts of pharmacology education: A global initiative

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Clare GuildingORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2022 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society. Background and Purpose: In recent decades, a focus on the most critical and fundamental concepts has proven highly advantageous to students and educators in many science disciplines. Pharmacology, unlike microbiology, biochemistry, or physiology, lacks a consensus list of such core concepts. Experimental Approach: We sought to develop a research-based, globally relevant list of core concepts that all students completing a foundational pharmacology course should master. This two-part project consisted of exploratory and refinement phases. The exploratory phase involved empirical data mining of the introductory sections of five key textbooks, in parallel with an online survey of over 200 pharmacology educators from 17 countries across six continents. The refinement phase involved three Delphi rounds involving 24 experts from 15 countries across six continents. Key Results: The exploratory phase resulted in a consolidated list of 74 candidate core concepts. In the refinement phase, the expert group produced a consensus list of 25 core concepts of pharmacology. Conclusion and Implications: This list will allow pharmacology educators everywhere to focus their efforts on the conceptual knowledge perceived to matter most by experts within the discipline. Next steps for this project include defining and unpacking each core concept and developing resources to help pharmacology educators globally teach and assess these concepts within their educational contexts.

Publication metadata

Author(s): White PJ, Guilding C, Angelo T, Kelly JP, Gorman L, Tucker SJ, Fun A, Han J, Chen G, Samak Y, Babey A-M, Caetano FA, Sarangi SC, Koenig J, Hao H, Goldfarb J, Karpa K, Vieira L, Restini C, Cunningham M, Aronsson P, Kelly-Laubscher R, Hernandez M, Rangachari PK, Mifsud J, Mraiche F, Sabra R, Pineros O, Zhen X, Kwanashie H, Exintaris B, Karunaratne N, Ishii K, Liu Y

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

Year: 2023

Volume: 180

Issue: 9

Pages: 1197-1209

Online publication date: 05/12/2022

Acceptance date: 29/11/2022

Date deposited: 16/01/2023

ISSN (print): 0007-1188

ISSN (electronic): 1476-5381

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Ltd


DOI: 10.1111/bph.16000


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