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2-Year Change in Revised Hammersmith Scale Scores in a Large Cohort of Untreated Paediatric Type 2 and 3 SMA Participants

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Anna Mayhew, Robert Muni Lofra, Dr Chiara Marini Bettolo



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2023 by the authors.The Revised Hammersmith Scale (RHS) is a 36-item ordinal scale developed using clinical expertise and sound psychometrics to investigate motor function in participants with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). In this study, we investigate median change in the RHS score up to two years in paediatric SMA 2 and 3 participants and contextualise it to the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale–Expanded (HFMSE). These change scores were considered by SMA type, motor function, and baseline RHS score. We consider a new transitional group, spanning crawlers, standers, and walkers-with-assistance, and analyse that alongside non-sitters, sitters, and walkers. The transitional group exhibit the most definitive change score trend, with an average 1-year decline of 3 points. In the weakest patients, we are most able to detect positive change in the RHS in the under-5 age group, whereas in the stronger patients, we are most able to detect decline in the RHS in the 8–13 age group. The RHS has a reduced floor effect compared to the HFMSE, although we show that the RHS should be used in conjunction with the RULM for participants scoring less than 20 points on the RHS. The timed items in the RHS have high between-participant variability, so participants with the same RHS total can be differentiated by their timed test items.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Stimpson G, Ramsey D, Wolfe A, Mayhew A, Scoto M, Baranello G, Muni Lofra R, Main M, Milev E, Coratti G, Pane M, Sansone V, D'Amico A, Bertini E, Messina S, Bruno C, Albamonte E, Mazzone ES, Montes J, Glanzman AM, Zolkipli-Cunningham Z, Pasternak A, Duong T, Dunaway Young S, Civitello M, Marini-Bettolo C, Day JW, Darras BT, De Vivo DC, Finkel RS, Mercuri E, Muntoni F

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine

Year: 2023

Volume: 12

Issue: 5

Print publication date: 01/03/2023

Online publication date: 28/02/2023

Acceptance date: 24/02/2023

Date deposited: 27/03/2023

ISSN (electronic): 2077-0383

Publisher: MDPI AG


DOI: 10.3390/jcm12051920


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Funder referenceFunder name
GSP 13002