Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Patient Self-Testing of Kidney Function at Home, a Prospective Clinical Feasibility Study in Kidney Transplant Recipients

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Jon Murray, Dr Cameron WilliamsORCiD, Dr Clare LendremORCiD, Amanda Winter, Professor John SimpsonORCiD, Emerita Professor Julia Newton, Professor Caroline Wroe, Dr William JonesORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


© 2023Introduction: People with long-term health conditions often attend clinics for kidney function tests. The Self-Testing Own Kidneys (STOK) study assessed feasibility of kidney transplant recipients using hand-held devices to self-test kidney function at home and investigated agreement between home self-test and standard clinic test results. Methods: A prospective, observational, single-center, clinical feasibility study (TRN: ISRCTN68116915), with N = 15 stable kidney transplant recipients, investigated blood potassium and creatinine results agreement between index self-tests at home (patient self-testing of capillary blood, using Abbott i-STAT Alinity analyzers [i-STAT]) and reference tests in clinic (staff sampled venous blood, analyzed with laboratory Siemens Advia Chemistry XPT analyzer) using Bland-Altman and error grid analysis. Results: The mean within-patient difference between index and reference test in creatinine was 2.25 μmol/l (95% confidence interval [CI]: −12.13, 16.81 μmol/l) and in potassium was 0.66 mmol/l (95% CI: −1.47, 2.79 mmol/l). All creatinine pairs and 27 of 40 (67.5%) potassium pairs were judged clinically equivalent. Planned follow-up analysis suggests that biochemical variables associated with potassium measurement in capillary blood were predominant sources of paired test result differences. Paired patient and nurse i-STAT capillary blood test potassium results were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: This small feasibility study observed that training selected patients to competently use hand-held devices to self-test kidney function at home is possible. Self-test creatinine results showed good analytical and clinical agreement with standard clinic test results. Self-test potassium results showed poorer agreement with standard clinic test results; however, patient self-use of i-STATs at home was not a statistically significant source of difference between paired potassium test results.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Murray JS, Williams CJ, Lendrem C, Smithson J, Allinson C, Robinson J, Walker A, Winter A, Simpson AJ, Newton J, Wroe C, Jones WS

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Kidney International Reports

Year: 2023

Volume: 8

Issue: 6

Pages: 1170-1182

Print publication date: 01/06/2023

Online publication date: 28/03/2023

Acceptance date: 06/03/2023

Date deposited: 08/06/2023

ISSN (electronic): 2468-0249

Publisher: Elsevier Inc.


DOI: 10.1016/j.ekir.2023.03.003


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric


Funder referenceFunder name
Academic Health Science Network North East and North Cumbria (AHSN NENC)
MIC-2016-014National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)
Northern Counties Kidney Research Fund