Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

'Creating a culturally competent pharmacy profession': A qualitative exploration of pharmacy staff perspectives of cultural competence and its training in community pharmacy settings

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Wing Man LauORCiD, Professor Andy HusbandORCiD, Professor Adam ToddORCiD, Anna Robinson-BarellaORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Introduction. Cultural competence is an important attribute underpinning interactions between healthcare professionals, such as pharmacists, and patients from ethnic minority communities. Health- and medicines-related inequalities affecting people from underrepresented ethnic groups, such as poorer access to healthcare services and poorer overall treatment outcomes in comparison to their White counterparts, have been widely discussed in the literature. Community pharmacies are the first port of call for healthcare services accessed by diverse patient populations; yet, limited research exists which explores the perceptions of culturally competent care within the profession, or the delivery of cultural competence training to community pharmacy staff. This research seeks to gather perspectives of community pharmacy teams relating to cultural competence and identify possible approaches for the adoption of cultural competence training.MethodsSemistructured interviews were conducted in-person, over the telephone or via video call, between October and December 2022. Perspectives on cultural competence and training were discussed. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The reflexive thematic analysis enabled the development of themes. QSR NVivo (Version 12) facilitated data management. Ethical approval was obtained from the Newcastle University Ethics Committee (reference: 25680/2022).ResultsFourteen participants working in community pharmacies were interviewed, including eight qualified pharmacists, one foundation trainee pharmacist, three pharmacy technicians/dispensers and two counter assistants. Three themes were developed from the data which centred on (1) defining and appreciating cultural competency within pharmacy services; (2) identifying pharmacies as ‘cultural hubs’ for members of the diverse, local community and (3) delivering cultural competence training for the pharmacy profession.ConclusionThe results of this study offer new insights and suggestions on the delivery of cultural competence training to community pharmacy staff, students and trainees entering the profession. Collaborative co-design approaches between patients and pharmacy staff could enable improved design, implementation and delivery of culturally competent pharmacy services.Patient or Public ContributionThe Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement group at Newcastle University had input in the study design and conceptualisation. Two patient champions inputted to ensure that the study was conducted, and the findings were reported, with cultural sensitivity.

Publication metadata

Author(s): McCann J, Lau WM, Husband A, Todd A, Sile L, Doll AK, Varia S, Robinson-Barella A

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Health Expectations

Year: 2023

Volume: 26

Issue: 5

Pages: 1941-1953

Print publication date: 01/10/2023

Online publication date: 26/06/2023

Acceptance date: 12/06/2023

Date deposited: 26/06/2023

ISSN (print): 1369-6513

ISSN (electronic): 1369-7625

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd


DOI: 10.1111/hex.13803


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric