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A systematic review and meta-analysis of school and cognitive function domains of health-related quality of life measures for children and young adults with congenital heart disease

Lookup NU author(s): Valentina Mamasoula, Professor Lindsay Pennington, Adenike AdesanyaORCiD, Professor Judith Rankin



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


© 2023 The Authors. Birth Defects Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.Background: Research on cognitive and school functioning domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) presents inconsistencies. Objectives: To summarize and synthesize data on school and cognitive function domains of HRQOL for children and young people (CYP) with CHD. Methods: Five electronic databases MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, ERI, and citations were systematically searched. We included original-research articles reporting the cognitive and school function domains of HRQOL for children and young people with CHD (child and parent reports included). Both fixed and random-effects meta-analyses were performed to estimate pooled mean test scores for cognitive and school function. A total of 34 studies met our inclusion criteria and were synthesized narratively, 17 studies were included in formal meta-analyses. Results: Self-reported cognitive function was lower for children and young people with CHD than healthy controls (SMD −0.28 (−0.42, −0.15)). Parental reports demonstrated similar results to self-reports (SMD −0.54 (−0.91, −0.18)). School function was lower in children and young people with CHD compared with healthy controls in self-reported (SMD −0.30 (−0.48, −0.13)) and parent reported HRQOL (SMD −0.49 (0.64, −0.36)). Self-reported school function domain scores were lower for young (<8 years) (SMD −0.65 (−1.32, 0.03)) and older children (8–18 years) (SMD −0.25 (−0.47, −0.03)) with CHD than their peers. Similarly, parents reported lower school function domain scores for young (<8 years) (SMD −0.68 (−1.29, −0.07)) and older (8–18 years) (SMD −0.46 (−068, −0.25)) children with CHD than typically developing peers. Conclusion: Children born with CHD may experience lower cognitive and school function HRQOL scores than healthy controls (self and proxy-report). This is consistent with a subgroup meta-analysis of young (<8 years) and older (8 years old or more) children with CHD reporting lower school function scores compared to controls.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Mamasoula C, Pennington L, Adesanya AM, Rankin J

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Birth Defects Research

Year: 2023

Volume: 116

Issue: 1

Online publication date: 28/11/2023

Acceptance date: 10/11/2023

Date deposited: 11/12/2023

ISSN (electronic): 2472-1727

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc


DOI: 10.1002/bdr2.2275


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