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Size effects of voids on the mechanical properties of 3D printed parts

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Hassan Gonabadi, Professor Steve BullORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© The Author(s) 2024.Although the effects of additive manufacturing process parameters on the mechanical properties of 3D printed parts have been numerically investigated in the literature, less attention has been paid on the size effects of voids between deposited filaments. This study fills this gap by developing a methodology based on a combined finite element (FE) and design of experiment (DoE) technique. The development of FE methodology is based on micro-mechanical analysis of representative volume element (RVE) of 3D printed parts to predict the effective orthotropic properties. To account for the size effects of inter-bead voids, the RVE includes contribution of the multiple parameters of layer heights, layer widths and overlapping regions. To study the main and interaction effects of the above input parameters on the stiffness properties of 3D printed parts, a structured approach based on full factorial design is used. Although the size effects of voids on the constituents of elastic moduli of RVE were investigated, the main focus in the present work is to develop a regression model to predict the stiffness properties. The FE stress analysis of the RVE conducted in this study provides an insight about the potential failure modes such as delamination and filament debonding that may occur in load bearing 3D printed parts. For a case study, the results of FE-based homogenization technique in terms of stiffness properties are validated against the experimental data via three-point bending and Iosipescu shear tests which were conducted in conjunction with digital image correlation technique. The combined numerical and statistical approach proposed in this study provides a swift iterative design of 3D printed parts prior to the time-consuming computation modelling, contributing to reduce the number of tests and manufacturing costs.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Gonabadi H, Hosseini SF, Chen Y, Bull S

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology

Year: 2024

Issue: ePub ahead of Print

Online publication date: 02/05/2024

Acceptance date: 23/04/2024

Date deposited: 14/05/2024

ISSN (print): 0268-3768

ISSN (electronic): 1433-3015

Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH


DOI: 10.1007/s00170-024-13683-9


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