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The effect of smoking on periodontal treatment response: A review of clinical evidence

Lookup NU author(s): Lynne Heasman, Fiona Stacey, Professor Philip Preshaw, Professor Giles McCrackenORCiD, Professor Peter Heasman


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Background: Smoking has been identified as a significant risk factor for periodontal diseases and is regarded as being responsible for incomplete or delayed healing in patients following treatment. Aim and Method: The aim of this conventional review was to review, collate and tabulate the relative effectiveness of treatments of chronic periodontitis in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers. Observations: The majority of clinical trials show significantly greater reductions in probing depths and bleeding on probing, and significantly greater gain of clinical attachment following non-surgical and surgical treatments in non-smokers compared with smokers. This benefit is also seen at class I and II furcation sites and in patients prescribed systemic or local antimicrobial treatments. Conclusions: Data from epidemiological, cross-sectional and case-control studies strongly suggest that quitting smoking is beneficial to patients following periodontal treatments. The periodontal status of ex-smokers following treatment suggests that quitting the habit is beneficial although there are only limited data from long-term longitudinal clinical trials to demonstrate unequivocally the periodontal benefit of quitting smoking. © 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Heasman L, Stacey F, Preshaw PM, McCracken GI, Hepburn S, Heasman PA

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Clinical Periodontology

Year: 2006

Volume: 33

Issue: 4

Pages: 241-253

ISSN (print): 0303-6979

ISSN (electronic): 1600-051X


DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2006.00902.x

PubMed id: 16553633