Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Cognitive impairment in primary biliary cirrhosis: Symptom impact and potential etiology

Lookup NU author(s): Emerita Professor Julia Newton, Dr Kieren Hollingsworth, Professor Roy Taylor, Ruth Pearce, Professor Andrew BlamireORCiD, Professor David Jones


Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available.


Qualitative studies suggest that patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) experience significant problems with memory and concentration. Studies of nonhepatic disease have linked hypotension and cognitive impairment. In this study, we determined the prevalence of cognitive symptoms in PBC, examined the relationship between symptoms and overt cognitive impairment and structural brain lesions, and explored the role of autonomic dysfunction. The prevalence of cognitive symptoms was determined in 198 patients with PBC. Twenty-eight representative early-stage female patients with PBC and 11 matched controls underwent formal cognitive testing at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Autonomic nervous system function was assessed according to heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity. Eleven subjects with PBC had structural brain lesions quantified via magnetic resonance imaging. Cognitive symptoms were frequent in our PBC population, with 53% of patients experiencing moderate or severe problems with concentration and/ or memory, which were unrelated in their severity to biochemical and histological makers of liver disease severity, suggesting that this symptom burden is largely or entirely unrelated to hepatic encephalopathy. Perceived cognitive symptoms correlated with objectively assessed cognitive impairment (r2 = 0.2, P < 0.05). Cognitive deficits were seen in the PBC cohort compared with controls, with significant decline detected over 2 years of follow-up. Correlations were seen between cognitive performance (full-scale intelligence quotient) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01, r2 = 0.2) with decline in cognitive function associated with autonomic abnormalities. Structural brain lesions were found in PBC, the density of which correlated with degree of cognitive impairment (P = 0.0 1, r2 = 0.5) and autonomic function (P = 0.03, r2 = 0.2). Conclusion: Cognitive symptoms are prevalent in PBC independent of liver disease severity and are associated with poorer performance on objective cognitive testing. Cognitive impairment is, in tarn, associated with structural brain lesions and autonomic dysfunction, which may predict risk of cognitive decline. Copyright © 2008 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Newton JL, Hollingsworth KG, Taylor R, El-Sharkawy AM, Khan ZU, Pearce R, Sutcliffe K, Okonkwo O, Davidson A, Burt J, Blamire AM, Jones DEJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Hepatology

Year: 2008

Volume: 48

Issue: 2

Pages: 541-549

ISSN (print): 0270-9139

ISSN (electronic): 1527-3350

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


DOI: 10.1002/hep.22371


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric


Funder referenceFunder name
Medical Research Council
G0500020Medical Research Council