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A Closed-Loop Optogenetic Platform

Lookup NU author(s): Dimitrios Firfilionis, Frances Hutchings, Dr Reza Tamadoni JahromiORCiD, Dr Darren Walsh, Mark Turnbull, Dr Enrique Escobedo-Cousin, Dr Richard Bailey, Dr Johan Gausden, Aaliyah Patel, Dr Fiona LeBeau, Professor Andrew Trevelyan, Professor Anthony O'Neill, Professor Marcus Kaiser, Professor Patrick Degenaar, Professor Andrew Jackson



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© Copyright © 2021 Firfilionis, Hutchings, Tamadoni, Walsh, Turnbull, Escobedo-Cousin, Bailey, Gausden, Patel, Haci, Liu, LeBeau, Trevelyan, Constandinou, O'Neill, Kaiser, Degenaar and Jackson. Neuromodulation is an established treatment for numerous neurological conditions, but to expand the therapeutic scope there is a need to improve the spatial, temporal and cell-type specificity of stimulation. Optogenetics is a promising area of current research, enabling optical stimulation of genetically-defined cell types without interfering with concurrent electrical recording for closed-loop control of neural activity. We are developing an open-source system to provide a platform for closed-loop optogenetic neuromodulation, incorporating custom integrated circuitry for recording and stimulation, real-time closed-loop algorithms running on a microcontroller and experimental control via a PC interface. We include commercial components to validate performance, with the ultimate aim of translating this approach to humans. In the meantime our system is flexible and expandable for use in a variety of preclinical neuroscientific applications. The platform consists of a Controlling Abnormal Network Dynamics using Optogenetics (CANDO) Control System (CS) that interfaces with up to four CANDO headstages responsible for electrical recording and optical stimulation through custom CANDO LED optrodes. Control of the hardware, inbuilt algorithms and data acquisition is enabled via the CANDO GUI (Graphical User Interface). Here we describe the design and implementation of this system, and demonstrate how it can be used to modulate neuronal oscillations in vitro and in vivo.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Firfilionis D, Hutchings F, Tamadoni R, Walsh D, Turnbull M, Escobedo-Cousin E, Bailey RG, Gausden J, Patel A, Haci D, Liu Y, LeBeau FEN, Trevelyan A, Constandinou TG, O'Neill A, Kaiser M, Degenaar P, Jackson A

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Frontiers in Neuroscience

Year: 2021

Volume: 15

Online publication date: 10/09/2021

Acceptance date: 16/08/2021

Date deposited: 07/10/2021

ISSN (print): 1662-4548

ISSN (electronic): 1662-453X

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA


DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2021.718311


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Funder referenceFunder name
102037/Z/13/ZWellcome Trust