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Capturing the real-world benefit of residual β-cell function during clinically important time-periods in established Type 1 diabetes

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Guy Taylor, Andy Shaw, Kieran Smith, Professor James WasonORCiD, Professor Emma Stevenson, Professor James Shaw, Dr Daniel WestORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).


© 2022 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK. Aims: Many individuals with type 1 diabetes retain residual β-cell function, with increased endogenous insulin secretion associated with reduced hyperglycaemia, hypoglycaemia and glycaemic variability. However, it is unknown when these improvements occur during the day. Dysglycaemia is common in overnight and postprandial periods and associated with diabetes complications. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the influence of residual β-cell function upon nocturnal and postprandial glycaemic control in established type 1 diabetes. Methods: Under free-living conditions, 66 participants wore a blinded continuous glucose monitor (CGM), kept a food diary, and completed a stimulated urine C-peptide creatinine (UCPCR) test. Nocturnal, and postprandial CGM outcomes (participant means and discrete event analysis) were compared between UCPCR groups: undetectable (Cpepund), low (Cpeplow: 0.001–0.19 nmol/mmol) and high (Cpephigh: ≥0.2 nmol/mmol). Results: Greater β-cell function was associated with incremental improvements in glycaemia. Cpephigh spent significantly greater time in normoglycaemia than Cpepund overnight (76 ± 20% vs. 58 ± 20%, p = 0.005) and 0–300 mins postprandially (68 ± 22% vs. 51 ± 22%, p = 0.045), while also having reducing nocturnal variability (SD 1.12 ± 0.41 vs. 1.52 ± 0.43 mmol/L, p = 0.010). Analysis of individual events, controlling for diabetes duration, BMI, basal insulin, use of a continuous or flash glucose monitor and (for postprandial) meal type, carbohydrate and bolus insulin intake, replicated the group findings, additionally demonstrating Cpepund had increased hyperglycaemia versus Cpeplow overnight and increased postprandial hypoglycaemic events compared with Cpephigh. For all participants, breakfast had a significantly higher incremental area under the curve than lunch and dinner. Conclusions: Residual β-cell function is associated with improved nocturnal and postprandial glycaemic control. These data may be of clinical importance for identifying specific periods and individuals where further glycaemic management strategies would be beneficial.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Taylor GS, Shaw AC, Smith K, Wason J, McDonald TJ, Oram RA, Stevenson E, Shaw JAM, West DJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Diabetic Medicine

Year: 2022

Volume: 39

Issue: 5

Print publication date: 01/05/2022

Online publication date: 18/02/2022

Acceptance date: 16/02/2022

Date deposited: 23/03/2022

ISSN (print): 0742-3071

ISSN (electronic): 1464-5491

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd


DOI: 10.1111/dme.14814

PubMed id: 35181926


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Funder referenceFunder name
Francis James Bell Endowment Fund, Country Durham Community Foundation
SCA/OF/12/15Diabetes Research & Wellness Foundation