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Changes in water intake of Northumbrian adolescents 1980 to 2000

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Vida Zohoori, Emeritus Professor Andrew Rugg-Gunn, Professor Paula Moynihan, Professor John Mathers, Professor Ashley AdamsonORCiD


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Objectives: To determine: total water intake in young English adolescents; the relative importance of sources of water intake; and changes in water intake and sources of water between 1980 and 2000. Design: A cross-sectional observational study of the diets of 11-12-year-old children attending seven schools in south Northumberland, UK. The information obtained was compared with results from a similar survey carried out 20 years previously. Methods: All children attending these schools were invited to participate. They completed a three-day diet diary with an interview on the fourth day, on two occasions during the school year. Standard UK food composition tables were used and water intake from various sources calculated. Anthropometric and social class information was obtained. Results: Four hundred and twenty-four children completed all aspects of the study (64% of those eligible). The mean total water intake was 1, 130 g d-1, approximately the same as that recorded 20 years before. Water intake in relation to energy intake: water intake was 139 g MJ-1 in boys and 143 g MJ-1 in girls. Sixty-five per cent of water came from drinks and 35% from foods; very similar to proportions 20 years before. The sources of water in drinks had changed considerably, with a marked increase in consumption of soft drinks (especially carbonated drinks) and a decrease in consumption of hot drinks and milk. There were a few differences between sexes but little difference between social groups. Conclusions: Total water intake was similar to that recorded 20 years previously and lower than intakes reported in other countries. Changes in the sources of water meant that less water consumed was likely to come from the tap in the house and more from drinks made elsewhere, than 20 years previously. These changes have implications for estimating fluoride intake in fluoridated areas.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Zohouri FV, Rugg-Gunn AJ, Fletcher ES, Hackett AF, Moynihan PJ, Mathers JC, Adamson AJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: British Dental Journal

Year: 2004

Volume: 196

Issue: 9

Pages: 547-552

ISSN (print): 0007-0610

ISSN (electronic): 1476-5373

Publisher: Nature Publishing Group


DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4811226

PubMed id: 15131626


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