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Food Fraud and the Perceived Integrity of European Food Imports into China

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Helen Kendall, Dr Sharron Kuznesof, Marian Raley, Beth Clark, Dr Mei-Yen Chan, Philip Brereton, Professor Lynn FrewerORCiD



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Abstract Background/aims: Persistent incidents of food fraud in China have resulted in low levels of consumer trust in the authenticity and safety of food that is domestically produced. We examined the relationship between the concerns of Chinese consumers regarding food fraud, and the role that demonstrating authenticity may play in relieving those concerns.Methods: A two-stage mixed method design research design was adopted. First, qualitative research (focus groups n=7) was conducted in three Chinese cities, Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu to explore concerns held by Chinese consumers in relation to food fraud.A subsequent quantitative survey (n=850) tested hypotheses derived from the qualitative research and theoretical literature regarding the relationship between attitudinal measures (including risk perceptions, social trust, and perceptions of benefit associated with demonstrating authenticity), and behavioral intention to purchase “authentic” European products using structural equation modelling.Results Chinese consumers perceive food fraud to be a hazard that represents a food safety risk. Food hazard concern was identified to be geographically influenced. Consumers in Chengdu (tier 2 city) possessed higher levels of hazard concern compared to consumers in Beijing and Guangzhou (tier 1). Structural trust (i.e. trust in actors and the governance of the food supply chain) was not a significant predictor of attitude and intention to purchase authenticated food products. Consumers were shown to have developed ‘risk-relieving’ strategies to compensate for the lack of trust in Chinese food and the dissonance experienced as a consequence of food fraud. Indexical and iconic authenticity cues provided by food manufacturers and regulators were important elements of product evaluations, although there are geographical differences in their relative importance.Conclusions: Targeted communication of authenticity assurance measures, including, regulations, enforcement, product testing and actions taken by industry may improve Chinese consumer trust in the domestic food supply chain and abate concerns regarding the safety risks associated with food fraud. To support product differentiation and retain prestige, European food manufactures operating within the Chinese market should recognise regional disparities in consumer risk perceptions regarding food fraud and the importance of personal risk mitigation strategies adopted by Chinese consumers to support the identification of authentic products.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Kendall H, Naughton P, Kuznesof S, Raley M, Dean M, Clark B, Stolz H, Home R, Chan MY, Zhong Q, Brereton P, Frewer LJ

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: PLoS One

Year: 2018

Volume: 13

Issue: 5

Online publication date: 23/05/2018

Acceptance date: 02/05/2018

Date deposited: 16/05/2018

ISSN (electronic): 1932-6203

Publisher: Public Library of Science


DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195817


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Funder referenceFunder name
7th Framework Programme of the European Union