Toggle Main Menu Toggle Search

Open Access padlockePrints

Associations between dietary patterns, FTO genotype and obesity in adults from seven European countries

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Katherine Livingstone, Dr Carlos Celis Morales, Eileen Gibney, Professor Lorraine Brennan, Professor John Mathers



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


© 2022, The Author(s). Purpose: High-fat and low-fibre discretionary food intake and FTO genotype are each associated independently with higher risk of obesity. However, few studies have investigated links between obesity and dietary patterns based on discretionary food intake, and the interaction effect of FTO genotype are unknown. Thus, this study aimed to derive dietary patterns based on intake of discretionary foods, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and fibre, and examine cross-sectional associations with BMI and waist circumference (WC), and interaction effects of FTO genotype. Methods: Baseline data on 1280 adults from seven European countries were included (the Food4Me study). Dietary intake was estimated from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Reduced rank regression was used to derive three dietary patterns using response variables of discretionary foods, SFA and fibre density. DNA was extracted from buccal swabs. Anthropometrics were self-measured. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between dietary patterns and BMI and WC, with an interaction for FTO genotype. Results: Dietary pattern 1 (positively correlated with discretionary foods and SFA, and inversely correlated with fibre) was associated with higher BMI (β:0.64; 95% CI 0.44, 0.84) and WC (β:1.58; 95% CI 1.08, 2.07). There was limited evidence dietary pattern 2 (positively correlated with discretionary foods and SFA) and dietary pattern 3 (positively correlated with SFA and fibre) were associated with anthropometrics. FTO risk genotype was associated with higher BMI and WC, with no evidence of a dietary interaction. Conclusions: Consuming a dietary pattern low in discretionary foods and high-SFA and low-fibre foods is likely to be important for maintaining a healthy weight, regardless of FTO predisposition to obesity. Trial registration: NCT01530139. Registered 9 February 2012

Publication metadata

Author(s): Livingstone KM, Brayner B, Celis-Morales C, Moschonis G, Manios Y, Traczyk I, Drevon CA, Daniel H, Saris WHM, Lovegrove JA, Gibney M, Gibney ER, Brennan L, Martinez JA, Mathers JC

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: European Journal of Nutrition

Year: 2022

Pages: Epub ahead of print

Online publication date: 21/03/2022

Acceptance date: 02/03/2022

Date deposited: 29/03/2022

ISSN (print): 1436-6207

ISSN (electronic): 1436-6215

Publisher: Springer Nature


DOI: 10.1007/s00394-022-02858-3


Altmetrics provided by Altmetric


Funder referenceFunder name
265494Commission of the European Communities