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Targeting X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein to Increase the Efficacy of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis for Melanoma Therapy

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Emma Hiscutt, Dr David Hill, Shaun Martin, Dr Andrew Harbottle, Professor Mark Birch-MachinORCiD, Dr Chris RedfernORCiD, Dr Jane Renwick, Professor Penny Lovat


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Melanoma remains notoriously resistant to current chemotherapeutics, leaving an acute need for novel therapeutic approaches. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic and therapeutic significance of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in melanoma through correlation of XIAP expression with disease stage, RAS/RAF mutational status, clinical outcome, and susceptibility to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death. XIAP expression and N-RAS/B-RAF mutational status were retrospectively determined in a cohort of 55 primary cutaneous melanocytic lesions selected and grouped according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. Short hairpin RNA interference of XIAP was used to analyze the effect of XIAP expression on ER stress-induced apoptosis in response to fenretinide or bortezomib in vitro. The results showed that XIAP positivity increased with progressive disease stage, although there was no significant correlation between XIAP positivity and combined N-RAS/B-RAF mutational status or clinical outcome. However, XIAP knockdown significantly increased ER stress-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells in a caspase-dependant manner. The correlation of XIAP expression with disease stage, as well as data showing that XIAP knockdown significantly increases fenretinide and bortezomib-induced apoptosis of metastatic melanoma cells, suggests that XIAP may prove to be an effective therapeutic target for melanoma therapy.

Publication metadata

Author(s): Hiscutt EL, Hill DS, Martin S, Kerr R, Harbottle A, Birch-Machin M, Redfern CPF, Fulda S, Armstrong JL, Lovat PE

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Year: 2010

Volume: 130

Issue: 9

Pages: 2250-2258

Print publication date: 03/06/2010

ISSN (print): 0022-202X

ISSN (electronic): 1523-1747

Publisher: Nature Publishing Group


DOI: 10.1038/jid.2010.146


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Funder referenceFunder name
North Eastern Skin Research Fund
British Skin Foundation
JGW Patterson Foundation
IAP6/18European Commission